Human speech was the first bearer of knowledge about actions performed jointly by people. Knowledge was gradually accumulated and orally transmitted from generation to generation. The process of oral stories received the first technological support with writing on different media. First, the letter used stone, bone, clay, papyrus, silk, then - paper. The emergence of printing accelerated the rate of accumulation and dissemination of knowledge, stimulated the development of sciences.
The first stage of IT development is "manual" information technology (until the second half of the 19th century). Instrumentation: pen, inkwell, ledger. The form of communication is mail. But already in the XVII century. Began to develop tools that allowed in the future to create mechanized, and then automated IT.
The second stage of IT development is "mechanical" information technology (from the end of the 19th century). Instrumentation: typewriter, telephone, phonograph. The information is transmitted with the help of improved postal communication, a search is being made for convenient means of presenting and transmitting information. At the end of XIX century. The effect of electricity was opened, which contributed to the invention of a telegraph, telephone, radio, allowing the prompt transmission and accumulation of information in any amount. There were means of information communication, so that the transfer of information could be carried out over long distances.
The third stage of IT development began in the late 1940s. XX century. - with the creation of the first computer.
During this period, the development of automated information technologies begins; Use magnetic and optical storage media, silicon; "Electric" information technology (40-60s of XX century) is applied. Until the late 1950's. In the computer, the main element of the design was electronic lamps (the first generation), the development of ideology and programming technology was due to the achievements of American scientists.
Instrumentation: large computers and related software, electric typewriter, portable tape recorder, copiers.
The fourth stage of IT development is "electronic" information technology (since the early 1970s). Its tools are large computers and the automated control systems created on their basis, equipped with a wide software. The goal is the formation of a substantial part of the information.
The invention of microprocessor technology and the emergence of a personal computer (70th of the XX century) made it possible to finally switch from mechanical and electrical means of converting information to electronic ones, which led to a miniaturization of all devices and devices. Microprocessors and integrated circuits create computers, computer networks, data transmission systems.
The fifth stage of IT development is computer ("new") information technology (since the mid-1980s). Toolkit - a personal computer (PC) with a large number of software products for various purposes. A decision support system is developing, artificial intelligence is implemented on a PC, telecommunications are used. Microprocessors are used. The purpose is the content and accessibility for the general consumer of miniaturized technical means for everyday, cultural and other purposes. History of copiers and IT hardware by GCIS in Stevenage.
At the present stage, instrumental environments and visual programming systems are being developed to create programs in high-level languages: TurboPascal, Delphi, Visual Bask, C ++ Builder, etc. Therefore, mass distributed processing is used. The unique possibilities are provided by the Internet, potentially enabling the creation of the largest parallel computer in order to effectively use the existing network potential. It can also be viewed as a metacomputer - the largest parallel computer consisting of many computers.
Research & Development
Our chemical development and manufacturing specialties include our Green Chemistry Toolbox for biocatalysis, homogenous catalysis and micro reactor technology with an integrated approach of chemistry and biotechnology.
Chemistry and Pharmacy
The pharmacy profession, exercised with the title Chemical - Pharmaceutical, is oriented toward science, technology and use of medicines in order to meet the needs of the population in this important aspect of health.
Career Opportunities: These professionals can exercise independently, installing its own pharmacy or pharmaceutical laboratory.